IŞIK ÜNİVERSİTESİ PROFICIENCY İNGİLİZCE HAZIRLIK ATLAMA SINAVI
IŞIK ÜNİVERSİTESİ PROFICIENCY İNGİLİZCE HAZIRLIK ATLAMA SINAVI
1 – Işık Üniversitesi (Proficiency ) İngilizce hazırlık Atlama Sınavı ( Işık Üniversitesi (Proficiency ) İngilizce hazırlık Atlama Sınavı Bireysel – özel Ders 2 –Işık Üniversitesi (Proficiency ) İngilizce hazırlık Atlama Sınavı ( Işık Üniversitesi (Proficiency ) İngilizce hazırlık Atlama Sınavı 4 kişi – Grup Özel ders )
Welcome to the Isik University example exam.
This exam is used to determine if your English is adequate for you to go straight into the Freshman program, or if you need to spend some time improving your language skills. The exam consists of 4 parts. Each part is based on the same topic.
The exam begins with a page that will help you understand the topic better.
This part of the exam introduces the general topic. Read the information below and think about the questions asked. Then try to imagine what might be in the rest of the exam.You will have 10 minutes for this part of the exam. You will not be graded on this section of the exam.
Introduction: Health and Alternative Healing
Today millions of people are going through their lives leading unhealthy lifestyles.If people’s lifestyle is not a healthy balance – for instance if they are exercising too little, eating an unbalanced diet getting involved in drugs or other unhealthy practices – they are more likely to have trouble concentrating or be unhappy, depressed, or ill.People’s lifestyle has a big affect on how they feel and what they get out of life, now and in the future. Despite this importance, many people don’t understand what it means to live a healthy life. Most health professionals agree that a healthy lifestyle is defined by four basic criteria:
1. Not smoking
2. Holding weight down
3. Eating right
People’s increasing awareness of the importance of health, has also led to an increase in the use of alternative therapies. These include practices such as herbalism, aromatherapy, acupuncture, an ancient Chinese practice, or Ayurveda, an ancient Indian way of healing. People who use these forms of therapy believe that traditional medicine, which is based on drugs, only treats the symptoms of an illness and doesn’t always deal with the basic causes of illness. Think about the questions below and about what information may be in the rest of the exam.
1. Why is health a person’s greatest treasure?
2. What other forma of alternative healing do you know?
3. Do you think alternative methods of healing work? Why or why not?
Part one of the test is either a reading exercise or a listening exercise.
For this example, part I is a reading text.
Try to read this text and answer the questions that follow it in 50 minutes.
No dictionaries are allowed.
Write your answers on a piece of paper and then check the answer keythat follows.
Have You Hugged Your Pet Today?
Throughout history animals have played a significant role in human customs, legends and religions. Primitive people found that human-animal relationships were important to their very survival, and pet-keeping was common in hunter-gatherer societies. Now more than one-half of all US households have pets. Pets are more common in homes with children, but there are more pets than children in the United States. There are more than 51 million dogs, 56 million cats, 45 million birds, 75 million small mammals and reptiles, and uncounted millions of aquarium fish. What can account for this huge surge in pet ownership? Some people suggest this increase is a reflection of a largely urban population’s often unsatisfied need for intimacy, nurturance, and contact with nature. Today the importance of contact with nature through animal-human relations has been widely acknowledged and determining the benefits of living wit companion animals has become a hot topic for scientific research.The use of animals in the promotion of health is not a new phenomenon. It is impossible to determine when animals were first used specifically to promote the physical and psychological well being of people. However one of the first recorded uses of animals in therapeutic settings was horseback riding which has been used for people with serious disabilities for centuries. Another early record of animal therapy occurred in 1792 at the York Retreat, in England. The Retreat incorporated dogs into the treatment of patients with psychological problems. It was thought that the dogs would provide the patients with some responsibility for their care, thereby encouraging them to focus on something external to themselves. This was tried as part of an enlightened approach attempting to reduce the use of harsh drugs and restraints.The first recorded use of animals in a therapeutic setting in the United States was in 1919 at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, D.C., when Superintendent Dr. W.A. White received a letter from Secretary of the Interior F.K. Lane suggesting the use of dogs as companions for the psychiatric hospital’s resident patients. Following this, the earliest extensive use of companion animals in the United States occurred from 1944 to 1945 at an Army Air Corps Convalescent Hospital at Pawling, New York. Patients recovering from war experiences were enco at the hospital’s farm with cattle, horses, and poultry. After the war, modest efforts began in using animals in outpatient psychotherapy. During the 1970s, numerous case studies of the beneficial effects of animals used in therapy with children and senior citizens were reported. Today, although inconclusive, a number of research projects suggest that owning a pet has a surprising amount of health benefits for the owner. These benefits include lower blood pressure, higher survival rates among heart attack victims, a greater sense of empathy for others, more regular exercise, and a greater sense of happiness. One of the most powerful and health promoting benefits that pet ownership has for the owner is lower blood pressure. A study begun in the late 1970s, clearly demonstrated that when children were asked to read aloud it created a stressful situation in which elevated blood pressure readings were exhibited. This was expected. However, what amazed the medical experts was when a small, familiar dog was placed on the reader’s lap and he or she began to stroke the dog, thei blood pressure readings returned to normal, in some cases falling 50%. Further studies indicate that it is not only dogs that can produce this amazing result. Similar results have been found with, horses, cats and other species of animals. Animals react to touch, and human beings react as well in very powerful ways. Another interesting study, that was examining the long-term survival of heart patients, also demonstrated the beneficial aspects of owning a pet. Initially, pets were not a part of the study but became a major focus once it was demonstrated that the second most important factor in the survival of heart patients was whether or not they owned a pet. In the first year of the study, four times as many patients without pets had died than those patients with pets. While these results were inconclusive on their own, they were strong enough to indicate more than coincidence. While it has been quite clearly demonstrated that pets are beneficial for people with health problems, the presence of a pet has also shown the potential to help people learn to empathize with others. Some therapists claim that children raised with animals are better able to understand how others feel and thereby develop stronger relationships with their friends. They suggest that the process of giving care to a pet through the acts of nurturing, touching, holding, protecting, giving food, and guiding, create the same feelings for the caregiver as he or she would experience in being cared for. In turn, these feelings can be utilized in how children deal with other peop enabling them to experience more rewarding relationships with others. The psychological support a pet can provide its owner is only a part of the benefits experienced in pet ownership. Another often reported benefit is the dramatic increase in the amount of physical exercise owners get. Relationships with animals such as dogs, or horses require a greater degree of physical movement. Taking the dog for a daily walk, or riding a horse, are enjoyable ways to get more exercise. More exercise enhances our physical health, which in turn has a positive effect on our mental health. Research and self-reports strongly indicate that pets have the ability to help their owners’ understand how others may feel, and encourage them to get more exercise. Further positive benefits that pet owners consistently report are higher levels of happiness and life satisfaction than non-pet owners. Studies of elderly people, AIDS patients, people who live alone, and homeless people all indicate that those who shared their lives with pets were less likely to experience depression, better able to tolerate living alone, and were more active than those who didn’t have pets. Other studies indicate that pets are also great for helping people meet other people. The benefits of increased social interaction with other people when walking a dog can help combat loneliness and facilitate the creation of friendships. Companion dogs provide wheelchair patients with a source of social stimulation that is more constant and more reliable than most human companions. Seeing-eye dogs have been used to improve the lives of visually impaired people for many years. Whatever the disability, nearly 100% of people who have assistant dogs report greater feelings of independence and a higher degree of life satisfaction than before they had their dogs. Why would pets produce these results? It is possible that people who own pets, or respond positively to animals, may have different personality traits than those who do not. While this may be true, the medical theory is that animals reduce stress levels and loneliness and bring people out of themselves. Plus pet ownership may also affect people physiologically through the soothing and relaxing effect of touch. Speechless communication with a pet, or simply watching a cat or fish,may produce a relaxation response with little demand on the person. Research has shown that complex, varied, and interesting daily activity is the strongest social predictor of a long life. Even the shyest person can become more social when he or she is in the presence of animals and taking the dog for a walk is a great way to meet other dog lovers. Pets such as dogs and cats provide unconditional, nonjudgmental love and affection help shift our narrow focus beyond ourselves helping us to feel connected to a larger world. (
WORD COUNT: 1257: prepared by SandyWinfield)
1. In paragraph one, line one, the word significant means …….?
2. The main idea of paragraph one is ….?
a. People no longer need contact with nature as we did in the past.
b. Animals rely on people for food, care and basic living needs.
c. Scientific research is important for people to be able to survive into the future.
d. Living with animals provides people with important needs.
3. In the last line of paragraph one “companion” means….?
a. someone who is a friend
b. someone unknown.
c. something unsafe
d. a farm animal.
4. The York Retreat in England was one of the first places to use animals to …?
a. to provide patients with animals to keep them busy
b. to make sure the patients didn’t leave the Retreat without permission
c. to help patients become aware of the world outside of themselves.
d. to provide patients with more regular exercise than they previously had.
5. Animals were used at York Retreat to reduce ….
a. the use of medication.
b. the number of nursing staff.
c. the length of time patients stayed at the Retreat.
d. problems among the patients.
6. The first recorded use of animals in the United States occurred ….?
a. about 60
b. about 300
c. about 90 years ago.
d. about 35 years ago.
7. According to the article all of the following are benefits of owning a pet except ….
a. feeling happier
b. less serious illnesses.
c. lower blood pressure
d. better survival in heart patients.
8. Companion dogs have been used to ….?
a. determine if pets have a positive effect on children.
b. improve the lives of people who cannot see.
c. reduce loneliness and depression in AIDS patients.
d. all of the above.
9. In paragraph 9, physiologically means …?
a. having to do with feelings
b. having to do with the body
c. having to do with the mind
d. having to do with intelligence
10. In paragraph 9, the phrase “Pets … help shift our narrow focus beyond ourselves” means?
a. pets help us learn to think of things other than ourselves
b. pets help us to get out of the house and do other things
c. pets can take up a lot of our time so we can only think of them.
d. when we live with pets we don’t need anything else.
Match the words or phrases in column A with the best definition or explanation in column B. There is
one extra item in column B
11. nurturance ________
12. phenomenon _______
13. incorporated ________
14. enlightened _______
15. extensive _______
a. widely used.
b. something that is unknown
c. used in the treatment of something
d. caring for something
e. a new and better way to do something.
f. a thing that happened.
16. homeless people _______
17. strong indicator of long life ____
18. horseback riding _____
19. Convalescent hospital _____
20. ownership of a pet _______
a. encouraged patients to work with farm animals.
b. accounts for the increase in pet ownership
c. helped heart patients to live longer.
d. has been used for hundreds of years to treat people with disabilities.
e. having many different things to do in your life.
f. benefited from having a pet.
Fill the gaps in the summary below with the best word from the box.
Animals have played a major role in human’s lives throughout history. Today, scientific research is trying to (21)____________________ the positive aspects of living with companion animals. Animals have been used as an (22)_____________________ form of treatment for many years. More recently it has been discovered that owning a pet can help lower people’s blood pressure, (23)_____________________ the chances of living after a heart attack, keep people more active and provide more satisfaction with life. It is (24)_______________________ that this happens because pets help people become more social, provide a means to give and receive (25)_____________________, and help connect us with the natural world.
Now check your answers with the answer key on the next page. Go back to the text and try to find the correct answers for any questions you got wrong. To practice for this part of the exam you need to read, read, read and learn new vocabulary. Read everything you can, magazines, newspapers, internet articles, novels, and make a note of the new words you find. Don’t stop reading to look in your dictionary, underline the words and try to understand the main ideas of the reading text and then when you are finished, you can write out the words and use your dictionary to learn their meaning. Then try reading the text again. Learning new vocabulary is essential for learning English and for passing this exam.
a. theorized b. affection c. discover
d. decisions e. alternative f. enhance
Name ANSWER KEY – Pet Hugging
example exam example
Write the letter of the correct answer in capitals: A, B, C, or D. If they are not clear,
they will be marked wrong. All answers must be on the answer sheet.
PART 1: READING
Part two of this exam is a listening exercise.
Normally for this part of the exam, someone would read a lecture and you
take notes as you listen. Then you can use these notes to answer questions
about the lecture. However, we cannot provide you with a recorded lecture
now, so we have given you the text of an example lecture.
Before reading the lecture, the reader will read a list of vocabulary that is
used in the lecture, giving you the meaning and an example of the word.
This is done to help you get used to the reader’s pronunciation.
A list of vocabulary words is included in this example. As you read it, try to
think about what information will be in the lecture.
You can read this text to get an idea of what you will hear on exam day.
Make notes as you quickly read it, and use these notes to answer the
questions that follow.
These words appear in the lecture:
1. Vedas (noun) – the Vedas are the name given the holy books of India.
Astrology (noun)- the study of the relationship of stars and their influence on people and
e.g. As he knows all about astrology, he can tell you about your future.
3. Equilibrium (noun)- a balance between opposing forces or influences.
e.g. Setting-up a
home helped to re-establish some kind of equilibrium in her life.
Isolation (noun)- is a state of being completely separate from any other place, or from
e.g. Living in the highlands in Scotland was wonderful, but as we were in complete
isolation, we never saw another person for months.
Holistic (adjective)- looking at things or people as a whole rather than looking at small
e.g. Nowadays, medicine looks at and treats the whole person rather than just the pain
they are suffering from.
Individualized (verb) – to make someone or something different so that it fits the special
needs of a particular person or place.
e.g. There are many individualized learning
programmes to suit everyone’s needs.
7. System (noun)- a group of related parts that work together as a whole for a particular
e.g. They have a really good alarm system in the house.
Generation (noun)- people of about the same age
e.g. The teenage generation spends
most of their free time playing computer games.
9. Profound (adjective)- to have a strong influence or effect on someone or something.
e.g. The way we live has a profound impact on our health.
10. Starches (noun) – a white substance(material) that is found in food, such as; rice,
potatoes and grains.
e.g. When we eat beans we need to eat some kind of starches, like, rice, pasta or potatoes, in
order to balance the meal.
11. Phlegmatic (adjective)- a person who is calm and is not easily excited, stressed or
e.g. She is an amazing phlegmatic person, she remains calm even in a crisis.
Heat rash(noun)- painful or itchy red spots on someone’s skin caused by
e.g. The doctor gave me some special cream for the heat rash on my arms which
developed after spending the day sunbathing.
13. Heart-burn(noun)- an unpleasant burning feeling in your stomach or chest.
e.g. The woman in the restaurant had the most terrible heart-burn after eating far
too much and too quickly that everyone thought she was having a heart attack.
These names are mentioned in the lecture:
Charaka Samhita Vid
Sushrut Samhita Doshas
Ashtang Hrdyam Ama
Listening Exam Example
AYURVEDA ‘THE SCIENCE OF LIFE’
History shows that we human beings are forever trying to find ways to improve ourselves and
the way we live. We have come a long way from the time humans first learned to use fire to
keep themselves warm and to cook their food, and to live in caves to protect themselves
from animals and extreme temperatures. Especially over the last 20 years or so, our lives
have greatly improved because of advances in research, in science and in technology. One
area in which we have made a lot of progress is health. Nowadays, there are numerous
diets, pills, exercise programs, and even different philosophies on how we can stay healthy
and how we can balance our lives. Most countries have modern hospitals and high tech
equipment to treat people. Interestingly enough, some scientific researchers and health
practitioners today are rediscovering health practices that date back thousands of years. One
example is the science called
which researchers are finding to be very useful in
maintaining health of mind and body. Ayurveda has been practiced for over 10.000 years
today’s lecture I would like to inform you briefly about this very balanced way of living. I will
first talk about the history of AYURVEDA, the meaning of AYURVEDA, and how AYURVEDA
History of Ayurveda
I will now talk about the history of Ayurveda. Ayurveda dates back an estimated 5,000-
It is widely considered to be the oldest form of health care in the world.
Scholars believe that knowledge of Ayurveda spread from India and influenced the ancient
Chinese system of medicine and even the system of medicine practiced by Hippocrates in
Greece. For this reason, Ayurveda is often referred to as the “Mother of all healing.”
Practitioners of Ayurveda believe that saints and sages, or wise men of India received the
wisdom of Ayurveda through deep meditation. Ayurvedic knowledge was passed down orally
through the generations and then written down in the
The Vedas are holy books of
India believed to be the oldest writings in the world. Written in Sanskrit, the Vedas cover a
vast number of subjects from grammar to health care. The Vedas were written approximately
2500 BC or earlier.
Our knowledge of Ayurveda today mostly comes from relatively later writings, primarily the
, a book written in approximately 1500 BC, the Ashtang Hrdyam,
approximately 500 AD, and the
written approximately between 300 – 400
AD. These three great books describe the basic principles and theories from which Ayurveda
has evolved. They also contain vast clinical information on how to treat disease. The
for example, is a remarkable document of internal medicine, written more
than 2,000 years before the microscope was invented. It explains how the body is made up
of cells and lists 20 different microscopic organisms which may cause disease.
Ayurveda has become popular in the West in the past 20 years. In India, Ayurveda lost
popularity when the British arrived. Western medical education became dominant during the
era of British rule. Ayurveda became a second-class option used primarily by traditional
spiritual practitioners and the poor. After India gained its independence in 1947, Ayurveda
became popular again and new schools began to be established. Today more than five
hundred Ayurvedic companies and hospitals have opened in the last ten years, and several
hundred schools have been established. Ayurveda remains a secondary system of health
care in India, but more and more, there is the concept of complementary care, wherein
Western and Ayurvedic physicians often work side by side.
Interest in Ayurveda in the West began in the mid 1970’s as Ayurvedic teachers from India
began visiting the United States and Europe. By sharing their knowledge they have inspired
a vast movement toward body-mind-spirit medicine. Today Ayurvedic colleges are opening
throughout Europe, Australia, and the United States.
The meaning of Ayurveda
I will now discuss the meaning of Ayurveda. Ayurveda is a traditional system of healing
practiced in India and Sri Lanka. It is a complete system which aims to improve emotional,
physical and mental health. The practice of Ayurveda is divided intro many different
branches. Medicine is only one aspect of Ayurveda. To benefit fully from Ayurveda, it is
helpful to consider other elements which are
astrology, meditation, yoga, breathing
exercises, massage, sound and music therapy
Ayurveda comes from a
Sanskrit word which has two roots ‘Ayus’ and ‘Vid’. Ayus
means ‘knowledge.’ ‘Ayus’ is our daily life cycle that represents the body, the
senses, the mind, and the soul.
is the knowledge of our world and how everything
works within it. Ayurveda therefore addresses the body, the mind, and the soul, and also the
world we live in. It is a
science. This mean means it deals with many different
aspects of health and not just one.
How Ayurveda works
How does Ayurveda work? One important concept in Ayurveda is the
concept of balance.
In Ayurveda, health is more than just not having a disease. It involves a balanced
interaction between the emotions, mind, body, actions, behaviour, and the environment in
which we live. All of these elements are equally important. Balance is health in Ayurveda
philosophy. What happens when we reach a state of balance? When we reach a state of
balance, we achieve an inner harmony that brings with it a profound contentment and state
of well-being. In Ayurveda, we are healthy when all our various functions (including our
digestion, metabolism, elimination and tissues) are in balance. Just as important to physical
health are the states of our mind, soul and senses, which should be peaceful, content and
So, why do we become imbalanced? There are a number of reasons why we lose our
and therefore become ill. When we work against our nature over a prolonged
period of time, say for example; by working too much, by eating badly, or when we
experience stress and negative emotions, our health will break down and we become ill.
This is because our life energies, called
have become unbalanced for one or more
of these reasons. When our vital energies are unbalanced over a long period of time, illness
often results. In Ayurveda, the main cause of illness is a build-up of
toxins and waste products.
Examples of unhealthy practices in Ayurveda are:
Drinking too much alcohol
Wanting too many things, being greedy
The under or over-stimulation of the five sense organs, including
listening to loud piercing noises, including some music.
Living in unhygienic conditions
not getting enough sleep
exposing yourself to excessive cold in winter or heat in summer
Ayurveda teaches us that all illness affects both the body and the mind and that you never
treat either in
In other words, if you treat the body you have to treat the mind also
and visa versa. Therefore, if you go to an ayurvedic doctor with a problem in your stomach,
he will ask you questions not only about your stomach but about your feelings and your state
Ayurveda is a holistic system.
Another characteristic of Ayruveda is that it is very individualized. In the west we take the
view that all people are the same, so we treat illnesses but we don’t have specialized
treatments for individuals. A doctor with 5 heart patients will give those 5 patients the same
medicine if they have the same heart condition. In Ayurveda, each patient is different. An
ayurvedic doctor will take into consideration the state of the mind, spirit and physical health
of each individual. Therefore,
Ayurveda is very individualized treatment.
To repeat: Ayurveda believes that health is not just the absence of disease. Health is the
balanced functioning the body, the mind, the emotions, and behavior, and our balanced
interaction with the environment in which we live. Illness results when our energies become
unbalanced, and when there is a build up of negative energies, called
believes that when one part of the body is ill, the whole person must be examined, not just
the diseased part. In Ayurveda there are different treatments for different people, because
each person’s situation is different.
The purpose of Ayurveda medicine is to ensure that we can avoid serious illness, by
understanding how we become ill and by avoiding unhealthy practices. When we do become
ill there is a wide range of treatments that help the body to heal itself.
I will now talk about some practical aspects of Ayurvedic treatment. The first objective of
Ayurveda therapy is to restore any imbalance between the vital life energies. It is believed
that in order to attain optimum health and wellbeing, we need to increase our awareness and
respect for our spirit. What do we need to do?
First, we need quiet time in our lives.
Sitting quietly for half an hour every day
helps to increase our awareness of our self. Do not keep your emotions and feelings
locked up inside you, write them down or discuss them with a friend. Every day find
some time to meditate to unite the mind, body and spirit.
Second, we must have a healthy diet, eat the right foods, and adopt a healthy
Choose good food that looks and tastes good. Eat in a calm atmosphere
and think about what you are eating. Try to eat at the same time every day and eat
slowly and chew your food thoroughly. It is best to allow three to six hours between
mealtimes, to give your system time to digest the previous meal. The largest meal of
the day should be lunch and should be taken between 12 and 1pm. Dinner should be
a lighter meal and is best eaten no later than 7.30pm.Only eat food that is in season
and do not eat protein with starches
Third, we must have a balanced outlook on life
. We have to remove all anger,
envy, materialism and egoism of the modern world from our lives. If people are
cheerful, happy and positive, they will improve their health and their well-being.
According to the wisdom of Ayurveda, the mind and the body have the intelligence to heal
themselves. This same intelligence operates in the world around us and within us. It is the
function of Ayurveda to promote the flow and use of this intelligence through all of
humankind. Once you have learned how to eat and live in accordance with your dosha, you
will begin to heal yourself and live in harmony.
In the last part of this lecture I would like to tell you about very important concepts of
Ayurveda which are the
Five Elements and The Three Doshas.
The ayurvedic system is
based on the belief that the universe is made up of five different elements — ether, air, fire,
water and earth, which are present in all things, from planetary systems to subatomic
structures, from colours and moods to sounds and feelings. Human sickness is caused by an
excess or imbalance in these elemental influences; the goal of Ayurveda is to bring them
back into balance.
For example, excess air can cause gas (physical) or light-headedness (mental). Too much
fire can lead to heat rash, heartburn or a hot temper. An overabundance of water may lead to
laziness, obesity or liver problems. People may be divided into three DOSHAS, or body
types, based on the combined influence of the five elements.
There are three basic dosha types: VATA, PITTA, and KAPHA. People with VATA DOSHA
(or “air type”) are nervous and sensitive. Their bodies are made up mainly of ether and air.
People with PITTA DOSHA are the “fire type.” They are temperamental and ambitious. And
they are made up mainly of fire and water. The KAPHA DOSHA are cool and phlegmatic.
They are the “water type” and combine the influences of water and earth.
An ayurvedic doctor will first interview a patient to determine his or her body type and mental
state, as well as specific health problems, and treatment will depend on the individual’s
Our doshas determines our constitution, our preferences, personality, sleeping patterns and
even the food we should eat.
Ayurveda is a very simple yet practical way of life which can bring balance to your mind,
body and soul. It is not a religious practice; it is a philosophy and a way of life. People have
practiced Ayurveda for thousands of years. Ayurveda believes that health is a state of
balance between the body, the mind, and the soul, and between the individual and his
community and environment. If this balance is disturbed a person may become seriously ill.
The philosophy of Ayurveda is something that you could easily try to bring into the way you
live. So why not start today by eating a little healthier, by spending some time to relax., by
trying to be more positive. I am sure we can learn a lot by learning more about this ancient
philosophy of healthy living.
Ayurveda Lecture Questions
1. Ayurveda originated from:
a) China and influenced ancient Indian and Arabic medical practices.
b) Greece and influenced ancient Chinese and Indian medical practices.
c) India and influenced ancient Greek and Chinese medical practices.
d) Japan and influence ancient Persian and Korean medical practices.
2. Charaka Samhita, Ashtang Hrdyam, and Sushrut Samhita are:
a) three great wise men who described the basic principles of Ayurveda.
b) three schools which developed the medical system of Ayurveda.
c) three books which describe the basic principles of Ayurveda.
d) three places where the basic principles of Ayurveda were founded.
3. Ayurveda lost popularity in India because:
a) it was too expensive
b) western medical education became dominant during the British rule.
c) the British passed laws forbidding the practice of Ayurveda
d) India became independent of Britain
4. Which of these elements are
mentioned as being helpful in order to benefit fully from
a) massage and breathing exercises
b) sound and music therapy and yoga
c) tennis and water-polo
d) astrology and meditation
5. According to the lecture the main reason we become ill is that:
a) there is a build-up of fats in the body
b) there is a build-up of toxins in the body
c) there is a build-up of viruses in the body
d) there is a build-up of sugar in the body
6. In Ayurveda
a) you first treat the body then the mind
b) mental illness is the cause of physical illness
c) you cannot treat the body without treating the mind
d) illnesses is caused by evil spirits
7. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as being an unhealthy practice in Ayurveda?
b) listening to loud music
c) working outdoors
d) exposure to too much cold in winter and heat in summer.
8. According to the lecture, one difference between Ayurveda and western medicine is that
a) Ayurveda gives different treatments to different individuals
b) Ayurveda is practiced only in Asia
c) Western medicine is much cheaper than Ayurvedic medicine
d) Ayurvedic medicine does not use modern machinery
9. According to Ayurveda, people may be divided into three …
c) Natural elements.
10. Ayurveda comes from a Sanskrit word with two roots, which are:
a) aya and vida
b) vida and ausa
c) ayus and vid
d) ayus and vata
11. A very important concept in Ayurveda is
12. Ayurveda was practiced as early as
a) 15,000 years ago
b) in 2,500 BC
c) in the last 20 years
d) 10,000 years ago
13. How did interest in Ayurveda spread in the West?
a) Westerners came to India and learned about Ayurveda
b) Ayurvedic teachers came to Western countries
c) A big school on Ayurveda opened in Britain in 1968
d) The Beatles were healed by Ayurvedic healers
14. Ama in Ayurveda refers to
a) negative thoughts, ideas, and feelings
b) one’s childhood experiences
c) one’s family
d) the mind
15. Ayurveda also believes that the world and our bodies are influenced by
a) the sky, the sea, the weather, the land, and the air
b) mountains, seas, oceans, clouds, land
c) flowers, trees, animals, the stars, the planets
d) ether, air, fire, water, and earth
B. TRUE OR FALSE
16. _______ The Chinese developed the oldest form of health care in the world.
17. _______ Ayurvedic knowledge was learned by wise men from reading ancient books.
18. _______ You can learn about Ayurveda by reading a set of books called the Vedas.
19. _______ You can study to be an Ayurvedic healer in Australia. (??? A bit obvious)
20. _______Holistic medicine focuses mainly on the mind.
C. SUMMARY COMPLETION
Ayurveda is an 21.______________ system of healing that has gained 22. ______________ in the
West. In Ayurveda, health is not just the absence of 23. ___________________. It means harmony
between all 24. ___________________ of a person’s life, including positive interaction with the
25. __________________. To be healthy one must avoid negative thoughts and feelings and not do
things in excess.
To prepare for this part of the exam you should listen to spoken English as
much as possible. Radio or television (no Turkish subtitles please, English
are fine) news programs are great. Don’t try to understand everything, but
get the main ideas. You can also practice note taking while doing this. Try
to develop a way of writing quickly that you will understand. For example:
Eg. = example
Env = environment
$ = money
intl = international
Using abbreviations like this will help you write more quickly.
Name ANSWER KEY – AYURVEDA
example exam example
Write the letter of the correct answer in capitals: A, B, C, or D. If they are not clear,
they will be marked wrong. All answers must be on the answer sheet.
PART 2: Listening
Part three of the exam is another reading exercise. Follow the same instruction
as the first reading. (This should take 50 minutes.)
READING PRACTICE – Obesity
1 Over one-half of all Americans (about 97 million) are overweight or obese. Obesity is a
condition of excess body fat. It is the most common form of
in the Western
world. A person is considered obese if he or she weighs at least 20 percent more than the
maximum healthy weight for his or her height. About three in 10 people in the United States
are obese, and the condition is becoming increasingly common.
In scientific terms, obesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than he or she
burns. What causes this imbalance between calories in and calories out may differ from one
person to another. Genetic, environmental, psychological, and other factors may all play a
3 Obesity tends to run in families, suggesting a genetic cause. Yet families also share diet and
lifestyle habits that may contribute to obesity. Separating these from genetic factors is often
difficult. Even so, science shows that heredity is linked to obesity. In one scientific study,
adults who were adopted as children were found to have weights closer to their biological
parents than to their adoptive parents. In this case, the person’s genetic makeup had more
influence on the development of obesity than the environment in the adoptive family home.
However, genes do not destine people to a lifetime of obesity. Environment also strongly
influences obesity. This includes lifestyle behaviors such as what a person eats and his or her
level of physical activity. Americans tend to eat high-fat foods, and put taste and convenience
ahead of nutrition. Also, most Americans do not get enough physical activity.
4 Although you cannot change your genetic makeup, you can change your eating habits and
levels of activity. Try some techniques that have helped some people lose weight. For
example, learn how to choose more nutritious meals that are lower in fat. Try to recognize and
(like inviting smells) that make you want to eat when you’re not
hungry. Become more physically active. Keep records of your food intake and physical
5 Psychological factors also play a role in eating habits. Many people eat in response to
negative emotions such as boredom, sadness, or anger. Yet, most overweight people have no
more psychological problems than people of average weight. Still, up to 10 percent of people
who are mildly obese and try to lose weight on their own or through commercial weight loss
programs have binge-eating disorder. This disorder is even more common in people who are
severely obese. During a binge-eating episode, people eat large amounts of food and feel that
they cannot control how much they are eating. Those with the most severe binge-eating
problems are also likely to have symptoms of depression and low self-esteem. These people
may have more difficulty losing weight and keeping it off than people without binge-eating
problems. If you are upset by binge-eating behavior and think you might have binge-eating
disorder, you should seek help from a health professional such as a psychiatrist, psychologist,
or clinical social worker.
6 Obesity is more than a cosmetic problem; it is a health hazard. Approximately 280,000 adult
deaths in the United States each year are related to obesity. Several serious medical
conditions have been linked to obesity, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood
pressure, and strokes. Of all obesity-related diseases, diabetes is most clearly and strongly
associated with obesity. Obesity is also linked to higher rates of certain types of cancer.
Obese men are more likely than non-obese men to die from cancer of the colon, rectum, or
prostate. Obese women are more likely than non-obese women to die from cancer of the
gallbladder, breast, uterus, cervix, or ovaries.
7 Obesity causes many health problems due to the strain it puts on organs and joints. Health
care providers generally agree that obesity contributes to premature mortality. If you are
overweight or obese, carrying the extra weight puts you at risk for developing these diseases
and losing this weight helps to prevent and control them.
8 Obesity can also have major psychological effects on people. Emotional suffering may be one
of the most painful parts of obesity. Western societies emphasize physical appearance and
often equate attractiveness with slimness, especially for women. Such messages make
overweight people feel unattractive. Also, many people think that obese individuals are
gluttonous, lazy, or both, even though this is not true. As a result, obese people often face
or discrimination in the job market, at school, and in social situations. Feelings of
rejection, shame, or depression are common among obese people.
9 Some people lose weight on their own; others like the support of a structured program.
Overweight people who are successful at losing weight, and keeping it off, can reduce their
risk factors for heart disease. If you decide to join any kind of weight control program, there
are some things to consider before you join. It is important to note that no diet or weight loss
formula works independently of an eating plan based on the dietary guidelines given by the
nutrition and health institutes. So if you are obese, throw away all those “special formulas”,
supplements, and pills, stop eating more calories than you need, become more physically
active and adopt a healthy eating plan.
10 First of all, the program should provide counseling to help you change your eating activity, and
personal habits. It should teach you how to change permanently those eating habits and
lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity that have contributed to weight gain. The staff
should be made up of a variety of qualified counselors and health professionals such as
nutritionists, registered dieticians, doctors, nurses, psychologists, and exercise physiologists.
Food choices should be flexible and suitable. Weight goals should be set by the health
professional. The program should consider your food likes and dislikes and your lifestyle when
your weight loss goals are planned. Finally, it should provide training on how to deal with times
when you may feel stressed and slip back to old habits. (1008 words)
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. What is the main idea of this article?
a. Weight control methods
b. Causes and effects of obesity
c. Problems obese people are having
d. Eating healthily
2. The word ‘malnutrition’ in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
a. Eating a small amount of the wrong kind of food
b. Not eating enough good food
c. Eating poisonous food
d. Lack of exercise
3. According to the reading, diabetes
a. damages the brain
b. can be caused by overeating
c. can lead to obesity
d. causes more deaths than heart disease
4. What does the article suggest about common weight loss programs?
a. they are very useful
b. they are totally useless
c. they must be used together with an eating plan
d. they have to be supervised by a doctor
5. Which is NOT mentioned as one of the causes of obesity?
6. What can NOT be inferred from paragraph 3?
a. You can get obesity from your parents
b. If your parents are obese you may or may not be obese
c. Many Americans are obese because of the way they live
d. American food companies profit from Americans’ food habits
7. The word ‘cues’ in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to
a. colors c. signals
b. pollution d. damage
8. We can infer from paragraph 3 that many Americans would prefer to eat _______ more than
a. hamburger and French fries / vegetables
b. vegetables / hamburger and French fries
c. home cooked food/ store-bought food
d. imported food / American food
9. Which sentence is
true – based on information from paragraph 5?
a. Obese people usually have more emotional problems than people of normal weight.
b. Some people feel better when they eat.
c. Some people cannot control their overeating.
d. Some people see food as an escape from boredom.
10. In binge eating, people
a. eat foods they normally do not eat
b. look for foods that are not easily available
c. do not know when to stop eating
d. spend a lot of money on expensive food
11. According to the text, why does obesity cause emotional problems?
a. Because obesity causes problems in marriage.
b. Because obesity makes people spend too much money on food.
c. Because many people associate obesity with negative personality characteristics.
d. Because obese people have a hard time going to work and keeping their jobs.
12. Which sentence is not true according to the passage?
a. To lose weight you have to be physically active.
b. Losing weight should include psychological support.
c. It is not possible to lose weight without the help of others.
d. Losing weight is not an easy process.
13. We learn from the text that when children are adopted
a. they weigh the same as their new parents
b. their weights are similar to their genetic parents
c. they develop obesity because of depression
d. they have a hard time controlling their food intake
14. We also learn from the text that if your biological parents are obese
a. you do not have to be obese
b. you are likely to develop cancer
c. you should have plastic surgery
d. you cannot lose weight by yourself
15. Binge-eaters are usually
a. single women
b. divorced men
c. unhappy people
B. Match the paragraph number on the right with the information on the left
16. The mind’s effect on obesity _____ A. 5
17. You can be born with the tendency to overeat _____ B. 10
18.Emotional effects of obesity _____ C. 4
19. Some strategies for changing one’s eating habits_____ D. 3
20. What a good weight loss program should have _____ E. 8
C. Summary. Fill the blanks with the correct words from the list below. There are 2 extra words.
More than 90 million Americans are overweight. Obesity is the result when you take in more energy
than you 21____________. Factors that lead to obesity are: overeating, decreased physical activity,
and 22. ________________. Overeating is clearly an important 23. _____________ to obesity.
Obesity increases the 24. ____________ of developing many diseases, especially heart disease,
stroke, diabetes, and cancer. So, losing weight helps to prevent and control these diseases. To lose
weight, you need to have a weight loss program. A good weight loss program must include not only
changes in caloric intake but also in 25. _____________________.
Again check your answers with the following answer key.
Go back and see if you can find the correct answers for any questions that you
Name ANSWER KEY – Obesity
example exam practice
Write the letter of the correct answer in capitals: A, B, C, or D. If they are not clear,
they will be marked wrong. All answers must be on the answer sheet.
PART 3: READING
ISIK UNIVERSITY EFL DEPARTMENT EXAM
PART 4: WRITING ABOUT THE TOPIC
You will have 90 minutes to write about the topic of the media. Recall the issues that
have been covered today. Now consider these issues as you answer the question
below in an academic essay. You will be graded on the language (50%) and the
organization/development (50%) of your essay. Your essay should have at least four
an introduction paragraph which has a thesis statement,
at least two well-developed body paragraphs with topic sentences, supporting
sentences and details,
and a concluding paragraph.
Today you have read about how things can affect our health both positively and
negatively. You also hear about an alternative form of health care. Using all this
information and your own ideas, answer the following question in a well-organized
What things can people do to improve their health?
You may support your
ideas with ideas from the readings, the lecture, and your own personal experience.
Plan your ideas on the back of this page. You will not be graded on your plan.